七巧板图片,经济学人 || 打破女人职场天花板,月半小夜曲
The glass ceiling in the corporate world is not brok熊承家en, but it is starting to crack.
Women are getting on to corporate boards at greater speed, and in greater numbers. Research by LinkedIn, a professional networking site, shows that across five countries (America, Germany, India, Italy and Norway) women it lists as directors reached the position faster than their male counterpartsdid.
In America, for example, women got there 9.8 years after leaving university and men after 10.9 years. This suggests that younger women are making good progress in the boardroom. Overall, however, females are still lagging behind the males. The proportion of people in leadership roles (director-level and above) that is female in the five countries varies from 17% in India to 35% in Ameri父女图片ca.
Britain has seen a clear advance; a campaign there called the 30% club has managed to increase 七巧板图片,经济学人 || 打破女性职场天花板,月半小夜曲the share of female directors of FTSE 100 companies from 12.5% in 2010 to 30.6%. But as the world marks International Women's Day on March 8th, it is clear that the glass ceiling has not shattered. Some firms may be paying only lip service to the idea of female leadership.
A王聚民 paper in the Academy of Management Journal highlights the phenomenon of "twokenism", a statistical bunching of American companies with exactly two female directors.The authors suggest this is directly related to 舔乳the average number of female directors on S&P1500 boards in the period studied (2004-13), which was 1.92.By opting for two women, businesses could claim they had "above average" female representation.
《办理学会杂志》中的一篇论文强调了“象征主义”现象，据统计许多美国公司中只要两名女性董事。其作者暗示这和研讨时段（2014-13）中规范普尔1500董事会的女性董事均匀七巧板图片,经济学人 || 打破女性职场天花板,月半小夜曲人数（1.92）有着直接关系。经过挑选两名女性入职，公司可以声称自己公司女性代表人数“高于均匀”。
In any case, a ri铁勒话se in the number of female directors is a narrow measure of female economic success. Having women at the top of organisations may inspire others to emulatethem, and board members may be able push through more female-friendly policies lower down in their organisations. But the vast majority of women would never expect to become directors. What they value is an opportunity to get a well-paid job and to be free吾家有个冰山大恶魔 from discrimination while doing it.
In this respect the news is less encouraging. Across the OECD the gender pay gap of full-time employees averages 13.5% and varies widely, from 3.4% in Luxembourg to 36.7% in South Korea. It can be hard to adjust for all the many factors, suc七巧板图片,经济学人 || 打破女性职场天花板,月半小夜曲h as skill levels, that might explain this gap. Nevertheless, the OE唐焯仪CD found last year that full-time employed women with a college degree earned, on average, 26% less than their male equivalents. A World Bank survey of 187 economies, published last month, found that women had, on average, three-quarters of the legal and employment rights of men.
The survey asked questions such as whether women were free to travel and open a business, if they had property rights and if they were protected from sexual harassment. 舒奈芙In the Middle East and north Africa, women were found on this basis to have less than half the rights of men (Saudi Arabia was ranked lowest of all the countries surveyed). Only in six countries (Belgium, Denmark, France, Latvia, Luxembourg and Sweden) did the law and society grant women equal rights.
该查询中问询的问题有，女性是否能自在游览和创业，她们是否有财产权以及她们是否免于性打扰。在中东和北非，女性在此基础上的权利不到男性的刁一妾一半（沙特阿拉伯在所有被查询国家中排名最低）。仅有6个国家（比利时、丹麦、法国、拉脱维七巧板图片,经济学人 || 打破女性职场天花板,月半小夜曲亚、卢森堡和瑞典）赋予了女性平等的法令和社会权利。
Problems are deep-rooted. Research by Lisa Cameron of the University of Melbourne with the IZA, a German thinktank, found that in many developing economies more than half of all non-agricultural female workers relied on inf芝麻街之大鸟看国际ormal employment, a higher share than men.
Not only do these women get paid less as a result, they also lack access to state social programmes, such as unemployment benefit and pensions, which are often designed with formal employment status in mind.The result is that霸宠独门小娇妻 poorly paid women have few resources to fall back on.
因而，这些女性不只挣得少，她们还不能参加国家社会项目，如赋闲补贴和养老金，这些通常是为正式用工情况所设七巧板图片,经济学人 || 打破女性职场天花板,月半小夜曲计的。成果现场铁证第一部，这些薪水菲薄的女功能依靠的资源十分少。
In addition, social programmes are much less generous in developing economies than they are in the rich world, absorbing 17.7% of GDP in Europe and 10.7% in America, but only 9.7% in Latin America and just 1.4% in South-East Asia.
Without the cushion of a benefit system, working women in the developing world probably must endure more bullying and harassment at work, for fear of losing their jobs. So there is certainly cause to celebrate women making small steps forward in the boardroom. But bigger leaps are still needed elsewhere. Progress in the boardroom is on共和国之怒完整版ly a start.
Verb. to break without dividing into separate parts.
Counte七巧板图片,经济学人 || 打破女性职场天花板,月半小夜曲rpart
Noun. a person or thing that has the same position or function as sb/sth else in a different place or situation.
Verb.to suddenly break into small pieces.
Verb. to try to do sth as well as sb else because you admire them.
Noun.Someone who has a pension recei七巧板图片,经济学人 || 打破女性职场天花板,月半小夜曲ves a regular sum of money from the state or from a former employer because they have retired or because they are widowed or disabled.